Suruga-hina doll Suruga hina ningyo
Gorgeous and luxurious garments
made from beautiful materials
What is Suruga-hina doll ?
Suruga Hina Dolls are dolls made in and around Shizuoka City in Shizuoka. Suruga Hina Dolls are larger than other dolls as thick rice straw is used to form the body which is the center of the doll. It is said that rice straw was used because Shizuoka City and the surrounding area were famous for rice production and rice straw was easy to obtain. The garments for the dolls are made separately for the upper part and lower part, giving it a more voluminous and gorgeous appearance when finished. As the production of the upper part and lower part of these dolls can be carried out separately, mass production is possible. Suruga Hina Dolls account for 70% of the total production of the bodies of Hina dolls in Japan which is more than that of the Kyoto Hina Dolls. The process in making Hina Dolls that requires the artisan’s skill the most is called ‘Furitsuke’ (arrangement of the posture) in which the doll’s arms are carefully bent. This is where the individuality of an artisan is shown, and an expert can identify the artisan by looking at the posture of the doll’s arms.
The origin of Suruga Hina Dolls are two Tenjin dolls. Michizane SUGAWARA, an aristocrat and politician who lived from 845 to 903, was worshipped as a god after his death, and was called Tenjin. One of the Tenjin dolls that are thought to be the origin of Suruga Hina Dolls is neri Tenjin, which is a doll made from a mixture of paulownia wood sawdust and wheat starch, and then colored with a brush. The other doll, made in the Edo period, is a Tenjin doll wearing clothes, which is a doll unique to the Suruga region. The oldest Tenjin doll wearing clothes was made in 1853. These two dolls are thought to be the origin of Suruga Hina Dolls. During the Edo period (1603 - 1868), craftsmen from Kyoto and Edo (current Tokyo) brought techniques and skills of Kyo Hina Dolls and Edo Hina Dolls to Suruga. These techniques were combined with those unique to the Suruga region, and high quality hina dolls were made. From then on, besides standing Tenjin dolls and hina dolls, Shinno hina dolls (young couple dolls) and Takasago dolls (dolls of an old couple) were made as dolls for seasonal festivals. In the late Edo period, Dairi hina dolls imitating the emperor and empress, and dolls for the Boys' festival held in May were made. After this, other dolls decorated with the couple hina dolls including the three court ladies and five musicians were made to complete a seven tiered hina doll set with a total of fifteen dolls. Today in Shizuoka (as of 2015), there is still a custom to decorate Tenjin dolls and dolls for the Boys' festival together with the emperor and empress hina dolls in homes where there are boys.
General Production Process
- 1. Cutting of straw body
First of all, the doll’s body has to be prepared. Rice straw has to be tightly wound for the body of a doll. The body made of straw is unique to Suruga Hina Dolls. The wound straw is wrapped in paper and cut to the size of the doll after it is dried.
- 2. Paring
The body has to be shaped into a human figure, with curves around the chest, for example.
- 3. Assembling of body
Wood wool is wrapped in paper to form a conical shape to make each arm. Wood wool is made of finely shaved and dried cedar, cypress and/or pine. The arms and wires are put through the straw body. Knees and feet on the circular seat also have to be made and attached.
- 4. Dressing
It is said “Nishijin in the west, Kiryu in the east”. Both are the names of the luxurious Japanese fabrics, Nishijin-ori and Kiryu-ori. These fabrics are used for the garments of Suruga Hina Dolls. Nishijin-ori is the thread-dyed fabric produced in Nishijin in northwest Kyoto. Kiryu-ori is a silk fabric produced in Kiryu City, Gunma. Fabrics for doll garments are selected on the basis of design, pattern and color that conform to the traditional garments of Hina Dolls.
Glue is applied on the pattern made of Japanese paper or western paper which is pasted onto the back of the fabric using the edge-pasting method. The edge-pasting method gives a smoother finish and makes stitching and dressing easier. When the glue is dried, the fabric is cut along the pattern.
Now the fabric is prepared to be sewed using a sewing machine and by hand. Dolls have to be dressed carefully when the garments are ready. Tono, a male Odairi-sama, has to be dressed in the traditional ceremonial court dress and Hakama. Hime, a female doll, is dressed in Hitoe (unlined single kimono), Itsutsu-ginu (a robe with multiple bands of colored silk attached at the edges of the sleeves and at the neckline), Uchi-ginu (a beaten scarlet silk robe worn as a stiffener and support for the outer robes), Omote-ginu (one of many kimonos forming Juni-Hitoe (twelve-layered ceremonial kimono), Kara-ginu (the outermost garment of Juni-Hitoe), Mo (the garment to be worn over Hakama), Hikigoshi (decorative ropes) and Hakama. Several Hitoe were worn those days so they were generally referred to as Juni-Hitoe. Adhesive called Nikawa is traditionally used for dressing the dolls.
- 5. Ude-ori (arrangement of the posture)
The process of arranging the posture is used to bend the doll’s arms. The image of the doll is determined by this arrangement of the posture.The arms attached to the straw body initially stretch out sideways. A doll-maker bends the arms and decides the doll’s posture. The skills of a veteran doll-maker is required to arrange the posture. A male doll has to look masculine and powerful and a female doll has to look feminine and loving. The wire in the arms can be bent only once so no mistake is allowed in this process. The doll maker has to concentrate and work carefully. The differences in the characteristics of each doll- maker and the level of the skill become significant in this process.
- 6. Kashira-tsuke (attaching the head)
The head has to be attached to the doll firmly. Another important thing is the line of vision. Roughly divided, there are two lines of vision for a doll. One is the line of vision that gazes straight ahead and the other is the line of vision that looks down slightly. The latter line of vision can meet the eyes of a person sitting down and looking at the doll from below. The lines of vision have to be decided not only for Odairi-sama and Ohina-sama but also for San-nin Kanjo and Gonin-Bayashi, in accordance with their roles.
- 7. Finish
Finally, the accessories for the dolls have to be prepared. Odairi-sama has Ei (a thin and transparent wing-like bow at the back of a hat), Koji (a container for Motodori (hair), and Kogai (a hair accessory to fix the hair to a crown). He also has Shaku (a mace with the requirements of the ceremony written on it), Kazatachi (a ceremonial sword) and Hirao (a sword belt).
Ohina-sama has Saishi (a hair accessory to fix Osuberakashi which is a hair style for noble woman), Hitai-gushi (a hairband) and Hiogi (a ceremonial folding fan on which the courtroom etiquette was written). When all the small props are attached, the making of the Suruga Hina Doll is completed.
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